Oracle Database on the AWS Cloud

Quick Start Reference Deployment

QS

September 2020

Hugo Rozestraten, Santiago Cardenas, Ravi Madabhushanam, and Tony Bulding, Amazon Web Services

Visit our GitHub repository for source files and to post feedback, report bugs, or submit feature ideas for this Quick Start.

This Quick Start was created by AWS solutions architects in collaboration with Amazon Web Services (AWS). Quick Starts are automated reference deployments that use AWS CloudFormation templates to deploy key technologies on AWS, following AWS best practices.

Overview

This Quick Start reference deployment guide provides step-by-step instructions for deploying Oracle Database on the AWS Cloud.

AWS provides a secure infrastructure to run your Oracle Database with an enterprise class architecture, high availability, and support for small, medium, and large databases. If you have an Oracle Database that is larger than 64 TiB, requires IOPS more than 80,000 or a database that relies on features that are not currently supported by Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS), which is the AWS database platform, you can install your own Oracle Database in the AWS virtual computing environment and manage it from your data center. More information on supported and unsupported features on Amazon RDS for Oracle is available in Amazon Relation Database services User Guide.

This guide is for database administrators, enterprise architects, system administrators, and developers who would like to run their Oracle Database in a highly available Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) environment, using Oracle Data Guard and Oracle Automatic Storage Management (ASM).

Amazon may share user-deployment information with the AWS Partner that collaborated with AWS on the Quick Start.

Oracle Database on AWS

Companies around the world have relied on Oracle Database for their data for many years. The business requirements that make Oracle Database a popular choice include the need for a low recovery time objective (RTO) and recovery point objective (RPO) in case of a failure or disaster, to guarantee minimum business impact and to ensure customer confidence.

Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) for Oracle Database is the easiest way to set up, operate, and scale a highly available Oracle Database in the cloud. You can deploy multiple editions of Oracle Database, including Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition, Standard Edition 1, and Standard Edition 2, with the Bring Your Own License (BYOL) model. Amazon RDS backs up your database automatically and also applies patches within the same patchset release.

Although Amazon RDS supports most Oracle Database use cases, it restricts access to some system procedures and features that require advanced privileges. In some cases, you might want to install Oracle Database without restricting any features, privileges, storage sizes, and IOPS. For example, you might want to use over 64 TiB of storage and over 80,000 IOPS. For these higher workloads, we recommend that you install Oracle Database in an Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) virtual computing environment.

This Quick Start provides a reliable and automated way to install and configure your Oracle Database Enterprise Edition on Amazon EC2 with high availability. The Quick Start templates install the Oracle ASM storage management layer with the Oracle Grid Infrastructure server, and Oracle Data Guard for database setup and replication using physical standby databases.

Oracle ASM is Oracle’s storage management solution that provides features such as disk striping, two-way and three-way mirroring, dynamic disk reconfiguration, and file management. Oracle Grid Infrastructure provides server support for Oracle Database and Oracle ASM. Oracle Data Guard provides a GUI and command-line interface for managing your primary and secondary databases. For more information about these components, see the Oracle documentation.

High Availability on AWS

The AWS Cloud infrastructure is global, and is built around Regions and Availability Zones. A Region is a separate geographic area where you can place AWS instances and data. For a current map of AWS Regions, see AWS Global Infrastructure on the AWS website. When you launch this Quick Start, you can choose the AWS Region where you would like to deploy your Oracle Database.

Each Region includes multiple Availability Zones, which are isolated locations with one or more discrete data centers—each with redundant power, networking and connectivity, housed in separate facilities. When you’re running databases on AWS, you can benefit significantly from Availability Zones, because they are connected to one another with fast, private, fiber-optic networking, providing automatic failover without interruption.

Oracle Database high availability (HA) on AWS relies on AWS Availability Zones. The primary database and the standby database are placed in different Availability Zones, so if your primary database fails, your standby database can take over.

HA Scenarios with Oracle Data Guard on AWS

Oracle Data Guard is a feature of Oracle Database Enterprise Edition that provides a set of tools to manage one or more Oracle standby databases for high availability and disaster recovery. To create an Oracle standby database, you replicate the Oracle primary database to a secondary machine by applying its online or archived redo logs. When the standby database is set up, any changes to the primary database are replicated to the standby database, ensuring that the contents of the two databases are in sync.

The following table describes the replication methods associated with Oracle Data Guard protection modes.

Protection mode Replication Behavior

Maximum performance (default)

Asynchronous

Primary database performance is not affected by any delays writing redo data to the standby database.

Maximum availability (default)

Synchronous

Commit occurs when all redo data needed to recover transactions has been written to the online redo log and to at least one synchronized standby database. If Data Guard is not able to write to the standby database, behavior will be similar to the maximum performance protection mode.

Maximum protection (default)

Synchronous

Changes must be written to both the online redo log and to the standby database for every transaction. If Data Guard is unable to write the redo stream to at least one standby, it will shut down the primary instance.

You can set up an Oracle primary and standby relationship between two EC2 instances in different Availability Zones in the same AWS Region for synchronous or asynchronous replication, because they are connected with high-speed links. Alternatively, you can set up asynchronous replication between primary and standby databases in different AWS Regions. This Quick Start automates the first option: replication between different Availability Zones in the same Region, as discussed in detail in the Architecture section. If you’re interested in the replication between Regions, you can create an Amazon EC2 AMI from your standby database instance and copy it to another Region. For more information about this alternate scenario, see Appendix A.

Oracle Network Environment in AWS

To ensure a high level of security, AWS provides the Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) service, which lets you provision logically isolated sections of the AWS Cloud where you can launch AWS resources in a virtual network that you define. When you create a VPC, you specify its size in the form of a Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) block. You can define a VPC as large as a /16 CIDR block or as small as a /28 CIDR block, depending on the number of subnets and IP addresses you would like to use. For more information about VPCs and subnets, see the AWS documentation.

We recommend that you create databases in private subnets, and use NAT gateways for internet access. This will ensure that your databases are not exposed to the internet, but can be updated via download packages. Database subnets should be accessible from your VPN (or AWS Direct Connect connection, if you have one), and from your application subnets. This Quick Start automatically sets up a VPC based on AWS best practices. It also sets up public and private subnets, NAT gateways, and bastion hosts in an Auto Scaling group to access your database instances.

Architecture
Figure 1. Network Planning for Oracle Database on AWS

If you want to establish a secure connection between your on-premises data center and your VPC, you can use a VPN connection or a dedicated network connection (AWS Direct Connect).

Cost

You are responsible for the cost of the AWS services used while running this Quick Start. There is no additional cost for using the Quick Start.

The AWS CloudFormation templates for Quick Starts include configuration parameters that you can customize. Some of the settings, such as the instance type, affect the cost of deployment. For cost estimates, see the pricing pages for each AWS service you use. Prices are subject to change.

After you deploy the Quick Start, create AWS Cost and Usage Reports to deliver billing metrics to an Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket in your account. These reports provide cost estimates based on usage throughout each month and aggregate the data at the end of the month. For more information, see What are AWS Cost and Usage Reports?

Software licenses

This deployment uses a Bring Your Own License (BYOL) model for Oracle Database Enterprise Edition. You must already own licenses for Oracle Database Enterprise Edition, and you must have access to the Oracle Technology Network to download the software.

This Quick Start launches the Amazon Machine Image (AMI) for the Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) or Oracle Linux operating system.

Architecture

Deploying this Quick Start for a new virtual private cloud (VPC) with default parameters builds the following Oracle Database environment in the AWS Cloud.

Architecture
Figure 2. Quick Start architecture for Oracle Database on AWS

As shown in Figure 2, the Quick Start deploys the Oracle primary database (using the preconfigured, general-purpose starter database from Oracle) on an Amazon EC2 instance in the first Availability Zone. It then sets up a second EC2 instance in a second Availability Zone, copies the primary database to the second instance by using the DUPLICATE command, and configures Oracle Data Guard. (The template that deploys the Quick Start into an existing VPC skips the tasks marked by asterisks.)

  • A highly available architecture that spans two Availability Zones.*

  • A VPC configured with public and private subnets according to AWS best practices, to provide you with your own virtual network on AWS.*

  • An internet gateway to allow access to the internet. This gateway is used by the bastion hosts to send and receive traffic.*

  • Managed NAT gateways to allow outbound internet access for resources in the private subnets. Database instances use this layer to securely download Linux packages required for Oracle installation.*

  • A Linux bastion host in each public subnet with an Elastic IP address to allow inbound Secure Shell (SSH) access to EC2 instances in public and private subnets.*

  • Three security groups for fine-grained inbound access control from the bastion host, between the database instances, and for application access to the database.

  • AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI) and an instance role for installation bucket access.

  • The Amazon Route 53 Domain Name System (DNS) web service to provide independency from using IP addresses or server host names. This is useful in failover or switchover scenarios.

  • A set of solid state drive (SSD) disks—six for ASM data (DATA) disk groups, and three for recovery (RECO) disk groups—which can be set to Provisioned IOPS (io1) volumes.

The Quick Start can also integrate with an existing Amazon S3 bucket, which helps you store backups and archive logs in a very cost-effective way. You can also use Oracle Secure Backup library commands to interact directly with Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN).

Planning the deployment

Specialized knowledge

This deployment requires a moderate level of familiarity with AWS services. If you’re new to AWS, visit Getting Started with AWS and Training and Certification. These sites provide materials for learning how to design, deploy, and operate your infrastructure and applications on the AWS Cloud.

AWS account

If you don’t already have an AWS account, create one at https://aws.amazon.com by following the on-screen instructions. Part of the sign-up process involves receiving a phone call and entering a PIN using the phone keypad.

Your AWS account is automatically signed up for all AWS services. You are charged only for the services you use.

Technical requirements

Before you launch the Quick Start, your account must be configured as specified in the following table. Otherwise, deployment might fail.

Resource quotas

If necessary, request service quota increases for the following resources. You might need to request increases if your existing deployment currently uses these resources and if this Quick Start deployment could result in exceeding the default quotas. The Service Quotas console displays your usage and quotas for some aspects of some services. For more information, see What is Service Quotas? and AWS service quotas.

Resource This deployment uses

VPCs

1

Elastic IP addresses

3

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) security groups

0

IAM roles

1

Auto Scaling groups

1

Application Load Balancers

0

Network Load Balancers

0

t2.micro instances

1

r3.2xlarge instances

2

Supported Regions

Code Name Opt-in Status

us-east-2

US East (Ohio)

Not required

us-east-1

US East (N. Virginia)

Not required

us-west-1

US West (N. California)

Not required

us-west-2

US West (Oregon)

Not required

af-south-1

Africa (Cape Town)

Required

ap-east-1

Asia Pacific (Hong Kong)

Required

ap-south-1

Asia Pacific (Mumbai)

Not required

ap-northeast-3

Asia Pacific (Osaka-Local)

Not required

ap-northeast-2

Asia Pacific (Seoul)

Not required

ap-southeast-1

Asia Pacific (Singapore)

Not required

ap-southeast-2

Asia Pacific (Sydney)

Not required

ap-northeast-1

Asia Pacific (Tokyo)

Not required

ca-central-1

Canada (Central)

Not required

eu-central-1

Europe (Frankfurt)

Not required

eu-west-1

Europe (Ireland)

Not required

eu-west-2

Europe (London)

Not required

eu-south-1

Europe (Milan)

Required

eu-west-3

Europe (Paris)

Not required

eu-north-1

Europe (Stockholm)

Not required

me-south-1

Middle East (Bahrain)

Required

sa-east-1

South America (São Paulo)

Not required

Certain Regions are available on an opt-in basis. See Managing AWS Regions.

EC2 key pairs

Make sure that at least one Amazon EC2 key pair exists in your AWS account in the Region where you plan to deploy the Quick Start. Make note of the key pair name. You need it during deployment. To create a key pair, see Amazon EC2 key pairs and Linux instances.

For testing or proof-of-concept purposes, we recommend creating a new key pair instead of using one that’s already being used by a production instance.

IAM permissions

Before launching the Quick Start, you must sign in to the AWS Management Console with IAM permissions for the resources that the templates deploy. The AdministratorAccess managed policy within IAM provides sufficient permissions, although your organization may choose to use a custom policy with more restrictions. For more information, see AWS managed policies for job functions.

Prepare for the deployment

  1. Download the Oracle Database Software

    1. Go to the Oracle Database Software Downloads webpage to download the binaries for Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2.0.1) or Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2).

    2. Go to the Oracle Linux Downloads webpage and download the Oracle Automatic Storage Management (ASM) Libraries.

Product or component Files to download and save in your S3 bucket

Oracle Grid Infrastructure Release 1

linuxamd64_12102_grid_1of2.zip linuxamd64_12102_grid_2of2.zip

Oracle Database Enterprise Edition Release 1

linuxamd64_12102_database_1of2.zip linuxamd64_12102_database_2of2.zip

Oracle Grid Infrastructure Release 2

linuxx64_12201_grid_home.zip

Oracle Database Enterprise Edition Release 2

linuxx64_12201_database.zip

Oracle Automatic Storage Management (ASM) Libraries

oracleasmlib-2.0.4-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
oracleasm-support-2.1.8-1.el6.x86_64.rpm

  1. Set up your S3 bucket by following the instructions in the AWS documentation.

    • You must place the S3 bucket in the same account (and preferably in the same Region) where you’re planning to launch the Quick Start.

    • Bucket name and key prefixes may only consist of letters, numbers, and hyphens (-).

  2. Place the unextracted downloads in the S3 bucket, as shown in Figure 3.

    • For better organization of objects in this bucket, you should place the binaries in a subfolder (subkey) of the bucket, e.g., bucket-name/path/to/binaries.

    • When you launch the Quick Start, you must specify this complete bucket name and key prefix in the Binaries Bucket Name and Binaries Bucket Key Prefix parameter. For example, you may place the binaries for Oracle 12.1 in S3://my-downaloads-bucket/oracle/121/ and Oracle 12.2 can be placed in S3://my-downloads-bucklet/oracle/122/.

    • Crosscheck that the following Oracle downloads are in the bucket before proceeding.

      1. linuxamd64_12102_database_1of2.zip
        linuxamd64_12102_database_2of2.zip
        linuxamd64_12102_grid_1of2.zip
        linuxamd64_12102_grid_2of2.zip for Oracle 12.1.0.2 Version

      2. linuxx64_12201_database.zip
        linuxx64_12201_grid_home.zip for Oracle 12.2.0.1 Version
        oracleasm-support-2.1.8-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
        oracleasmlib-2.0.4-1.el6.x86_64.rpm for Oracle Linux 6.7 or RHEL 7.2
        oracleasmlib-2.0.12-1.el7.x86_64.rpm for Oracle Linux 7.3.

staging_downloads
Figure 3. Staging downloads in the S3 bucket

Deployment options

This Quick Start provides two deployment options:

  • Deploy Oracle Database into a new VPC (end-to-end deployment). This option builds a new AWS environment consisting of the VPC, subnets, NAT gateways, security groups, bastion hosts, and other infrastructure components. It then deploys Oracle Database into this new VPC.

  • Deploy Oracle Database into an existing VPC. This option provisions Oracle Database in your existing AWS infrastructure.

The Quick Start provides separate templates for these options. It also lets you configure Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) blocks, instance types, and Oracle Database settings, as discussed later in this guide.

Oracle Database 12c Editions

This Quick Start requires Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition.

In Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition, you can choose to use the standard Linux file system (e.g., ext4) or Automatic Storage Management (ASM) to store your data files, redo logs, and archived logs. This Quick Start deploys an ASM infrastructure, which provides better performance and file management than the standard Linux file system. Oracle ASM supports automatic file management and data striping across multiple EBS volumes, providing high performance and an easy way to scale your storage area.

installation_summary
Figure 4. Installation Summary for Oracle Database on AWS

Operating System for Deployment

You can use Linux or Microsoft Windows for your Oracle Database installation on AWS. This Quick Start deployment uses Linux. The Quick Start supports Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) version 7.2 and Oracle Linux 7.3.

Storage Management

This Quick Start uses Oracle ASM as the storage layer of the virtual machine, because ASM helps you add and reduce capacity easily. ASM’s striping feature, which spreads data across multiple disks in 1-MiB blocks, also supports distributed I/O across all the EBS volumes.

asm_disk_groups
Figure 5. ASM Disk Groups

This Quick Start gives you a choice of General Purpose SSD (gp2) volumes or Provisioned IOPS SSD (io1) volumes.

Setting an ASM disk group to several gp2 volumes provides a burst capability per EBS volume of up to 3,000 IOPS, which means 18,000 IOPS for a six-volume DATA disk group and 9,000 IOPS for a three-volume RECO disk group, even with disks as small as 1 GiB.

For sustained IOPS, each 1-GiB gp2 volume delivers 3 IOPS until the maximum of 16,000 IOPS is reached. Also certain large EC2 instances can support maximum of 80,000 IOPS. Refer to Amazon EBS–optimized instances for additional information on maximum IOPS supported by each instance type. So with our six-volume data disks, the maximum I/O throughput is achieved with 4,444 GiB volumes (x 6 = 26,667 GiB disk group) or higher volumes.

For sustained IOPS that is higher than 3 IOPS/GiB, you can use io1 volumes. This option typically addresses the needs of critical business applications that require sustained IOPS performance or more than 16,000 IOPS or 250 MiB/s of throughput per volume, and can then achieve 500 MiB/s per volume. Provisioned IOPS instances can provide maximum throughput of 1,000 MiB/s when provisioned with more than 32,000 IOPS on Nitro system based instance types. For more information refer to Amazon EBS volume types.

If you choose Provisioned IOPS (io1) volumes, you will need to provide the amount of IOPS desired for both DATA and RECO volumes.

ASM is part of Oracle Grid Infrastructure, which is provided as a standalone download, so this Quick Start installs Oracle Grid Infrastructure followed by Oracle Database 12c.

Oracle Memory Configuration

The Quick Start maps each instance type to an Oracle SGA size in megabytes (60% of available RAM in the instance) and SHMMAX kernel, using 75% of the memory available to allow further SGA growth. For more information, see the Oracle support document 1529864.1 (access to the document requires an Oracle account). The Quick Start provides default settings that you can revise; see the Mappings section of the AWS CloudFormation template.

  "Mappings": {
      "AWSInstanceType2Value": {
          "t2.medium": {
              "sga": "2458",
              "shmall": "838861",
              "shmmax": "3221225472"
          },
          ...
          "t2.large": {
              "sga": "4915",
              "shmall": "1677722",
              "shmmax": "6442450944"
          },
          ...
          "r3.8xlarge": {
              "sga": "149914",
              "shmall": "51170509",
              "shmmax": "196494753792"
          },
          ...

Backup Options

The Amazon S3 service provides an easy way to handle Oracle Database backups. AWS provides large network bandwidth from the EC2 instances deployed by the Quick Start to the S3 buckets.

Oracle also provides a product called Oracle Secure Backup (OSB) Cloud Module. This product is not included in Oracle Enterprise Edition and requires a separate license with Oracle. This Quick Start gives you the option to install the OSB Cloud Module. You can use the parameters in the Oracle Secure Backup Cloud Module section of the template to configure the settings for this module, including the name of the S3 bucket for storing your Oracle Database backups, your Oracle Technology Network (OTN) account and password, and an access key and secret key for accessing the bucket. See Launch the Quick Start in the deployment steps for details. To register for an OTN account, see the Oracle documentation.

For more information about Oracle Database backup options after deployment, see the Backing Up Your Data section later in this guide.

Deployment steps

Sign in to your AWS account

  1. Sign in to your AWS account at https://aws.amazon.com with an IAM user role that has the necessary permissions. For details, see Planning the deployment earlier in this guide.

  2. Make sure that your AWS account is configured correctly, as discussed in the Technical requirements section.

Launch the Quick Start

You are responsible for the cost of the AWS services used while running this Quick Start reference deployment. There is no additional cost for using this Quick Start. For full details, see the pricing pages for each AWS service used by this Quick Start. Prices are subject to change.
  1. Sign in to your AWS account, and choose one of the following options to launch the AWS CloudFormation template. For help with choosing an option, see deployment options earlier in this guide.

Deploy Oracle Database into a new VPC on AWS

Deploy Oracle Database into an existing VPC on AWS

If you’re deploying Oracle Database into an existing VPC, make sure that your VPC has two private subnets in different Availability Zones for the workload instances, and that the subnets aren’t shared. This Quick Start doesn’t support shared subnets. These subnets require NAT gateways in their route tables, to allow the instances to download packages and software without exposing them to the internet.

Also, make sure that the domain name option in the DHCP options is configured as explained in the Amazon VPC documentation. You provide your VPC settings when you launch the Quick Start.

Each deployment takes about 1 hour to complete.

  1. Check the AWS Region that’s displayed in the upper-right corner of the navigation bar, and change it if necessary. This is where the network infrastructure for Oracle Database will be built. The template is launched in the us-west-2 Region by default.

  1. On the Create stack page, keep the default setting for the template URL, and then choose Next.

  2. On the Specify stack details page, change the stack name if needed. Review the parameters for the template. Provide values for the parameters that require input. For all other parameters, review the default settings and customize them as necessary.

In the following tables, parameters are listed by category and described separately for the deployment options. When you finish reviewing and customizing the parameters, choose Next.

Unless you are customizing the Quick Start templates for your own deployment projects, keep the default settings for the parameters Quick Start S3 bucket name, Quick Start S3 bucket Region, and Quick Start S3 key prefix. Changing these settings automatically updates code references to point to a new Quick Start location. For more information, see the AWS Quick Start Contributor’s Guide.

Launch into an existing VPC

Table 1. Network Configuration
Parameter label (name) Default value Description

VPC ID (VPCID)

Requires input

ID of the VPC (e.g., vpc-0343606e)

Private Subnet ID 1 (PrivateSubnet1ID)

Requires input

ID of the private subnet 1 in Availability Zone 1 (e.g., subnet-a0246dcd)

Private Subnet ID 2 (PrivateSubnet2ID)

Requires input

ID of the private subnet 2 in Availability Zone 2 (e.g., subnet-b58c3d67)

Bastion Security Group ID (BastionSecurityGroupID)

Requires input

ID of the Bastion Security Group (e.g., sg-7f16e910)

Table 2. Amazon EC2 Configuration
Parameter label (name) Default value Description

Key Pair Name (KeyPairName)

Requires input

Name of an existing EC2 KeyPair to enable SSH access to the instance

Database Operating System (OracleAMIOS)

Red-Hat-Enterprise-Linux-7.2-HVM

Operating system and version for database nodes.

Database Instance Type (OracleInstanceType)

r3.2xlarge

Choose your Oracle Database instance type.

Primary Database Private IP (PrimaryIPAddress)

10.0.0.5

This must be a valid IP address for private subnet 1.

Standby Database Private IP (StandbyIPAddress)

10.0.32.5

This must be a valid IP address for private subnet 2.

Enable CloudWatch Logs (EnableCWL)

false

enable pushing instance logs to CloudWatch Logs

Table 3. Oracle Database Configuration
Parameter label (name) Default value Description

Oracle Version (OracleVersion)

12.2.0.1

Version of Oracle Database Software.

Domain Name (DomainName)

dataguard-env

Name of Domain to reach your Database Endpoint after setup.

Database Port Number (DatabasePort)

1525

Oracle Database listener port number.

Primary Database Name (DatabaseName)

orcl

Enter your Database Name, Min 3, Maximum of 8 characters (limited by DB_NAME). Primary instance will have the same name of this.

Data Guard Configuration (DataGuardConfig)

Data Guard

Configuration: Single - One instance only, Data Guard - Two instances (Primary + Standby)

Character Set (CharacterSet)

AL32UTF8

Character set for Oracle Database.

Standby Database Name (StandbyName)

orclsb

Enter your Standby instance name, Min 3, Maximum of 12 characters.

Database Password (DatabasePass)

Requires input

Enter your Database Password, Min 3, maximum of 30 characters. This password is used for the SYS, SYSTEM, and DBSNMP users of Oracle Database.

ASM Password (AsmPass)

Requires input

Enter your ASM Password, Min 3, maximum of 30 characters. This password is used for the SYSASM, ASM Monitor, and ASM EM admin users of Oracle ASM.

Data Diskgroup GiB/Disk (EBSData)

20

Enter the number of Gigabytes for Each ASM Disk (EBS) for DATA Diskgroup total of 6 (six) volumes, maximum of 16000 GiB each.

Data Diskgroup Volume Type (DataVolumeType)

gp2

Disk type for EBS Data Diskgroup. gp2 (performance ratio of 3 IOPS: 1 GiB) or io1 (performance ratio up to 50 IOPS : 1 GiB).

Data - IOPS per EBS Volume (DataIOPS)

600

IOPS per EBS Volume, only for io1 types. DATA diskgroup total IOPS will be this value x 6. Maximum of 20000 IOPS per volume. Limited to 50 IOPS : 1 GiB.

Recovery (Reco) Diskgroup GiB/Disk (EBSReco)

6

Enter the number of Gigabytes for Each ASM Disk (EBS) for RECO Diskgroup total of 3 (three) volumes, maximum of 16000 GiB each.

Reco Diskgroup Volume Type (RecoVolumeType)

gp2

Disk type for EBS Reco Diskgroup. gp2 (performance ratio of 3 IOPS: 1 GiB) or io1 (performance ratio up to 50 IOPS : 1 GiB).

Reco - IOPS per EBS Volume (RecoIOPS)

200

IOPS per EBS Volume, only for io1 types. RECO diskgroup total IOPS will be this value x 3. Maximum of 20000 IOPS per volume. Limited to 50 IOPS : 1 GiB.

Binaries Bucket Name (InstallBucketName)

Requires input

Name of your S3 bucket with your Oracle Binaries (e.g., bucket-name)

Binaries Bucket Key Prefix (InstallBucketPrefix)

oracle/database/12

Name of your S3 prefix with your Oracle Binaries (e.g., key/prefix)

Table 4. Oracle Secure Backup Cloud Module (Optional)
Parameter label (name) Default value Description

Install Oracle Secure Backup (OSBInstall)

false

Install (true) or don’t install (false) optional Oracle Secure Backup.

OTN Account Email/Login (OSBOTN)

Requires input

Your OTN (Oracle Technology Network) account login.

OTN Account Password (OSBPass)

Requires input

Password of your OTN (Oracle Technology Network) account.

S3 Bucket for Backups (OSBBucketName)

Requires input

Name of your S3 bucket to store your Oracle backups.

AWS Access Key ID (OSBKey)

Requires input

The AWS Access Key to access your backup bucket, something like AKIAIV3KL4XXIT7DXXYY.

AWS Secret Access Key (OSBSecret)

Requires input

The AWS Secret Key to access your backup bucket, something like c/ZeLyzixxx3HfxPVLX9IOKMXEdSbqks3Acz7QHj.

Table 5. AWS Quick Start Configuration
Parameter label (name) Default value Description

Quick Start S3 Bucket Name (QSS3BucketName)

aws-quickstart

S3 bucket name for the Quick Start assets. Quick Start bucket name can include numbers, lowercase letters, uppercase letters, and hyphens (-). It cannot start or end with a hyphen (-).

Quick Start S3 bucket region (QSS3BucketRegion)

us-east-1

The AWS Region where the Quick Start S3 bucket (QSS3BucketName) is hosted. When using your own bucket, you must specify this value.

Quick Start S3 Key Prefix (QSS3KeyPrefix)

quickstart-oracle-database/

S3 key prefix for the Quick Start assets. Quick Start key prefix can include numbers, lowercase letters, uppercase letters, hyphens (-), and forward slash (/).

Launch into a new VPC

Table 6. Network Configuration
Parameter label (name) Default value Description

Availability Zones (AvailabilityZones)

Requires input

List of Availability Zones to use for the subnets in the VPC. Note: The logical order is preserved and only 2 AZs are used for this deployment.

VPC CIDR (VPCCIDR)

10.0.0.0/16

CIDR Block for the VPC

Private Subnet 1 CIDR (PrivateSubnet1CIDR)

10.0.0.0/19

CIDR block for private subnet 1 located in Availability Zone 1.

Private Subnet 2 CIDR (PrivateSubnet2CIDR)

10.0.32.0/19

CIDR block for private subnet 2 located in Availability Zone 2.

Public Subnet 1 CIDR (PublicSubnet1CIDR)

10.0.128.0/20

CIDR Block for the public DMZ subnet 1 located in Availability Zone 1

Public Subnet 2 CIDR (PublicSubnet2CIDR)

10.0.144.0/20

CIDR Block for the public DMZ subnet 2 located in Availability Zone 2

Allowed Bastion External Access CIDR (RemoteAccessCIDR)

Requires input

Allowed CIDR block for external SSH access to the bastions

Table 7. Amazon EC2 Configuration
Parameter label (name) Default value Description

Key Pair Name (KeyPairName)

Requires input

Public/private key pairs allow you to securely connect to your instance after it launches

Database Operating System (OracleAMIOS)

Red-Hat-Enterprise-Linux-7.2-HVM

Operating system and version for master/worker nodes.

Database Instance Type (OracleInstanceType)

r3.2xlarge

Choose your Oracle Database instance type.

Primary Database Private IP (PrimaryIPAddress)

10.0.0.5

This must be a valid IP address for private subnet 1.

Standby Database Private IP (StandbyIPAddress)

10.0.32.5

This must be a valid IP address for private subnet 2.

Enable CloudWatch Logs (EnableCWL)

false

enable pushing instance logs to CloudWatch Logs

Table 8. Oracle Database Configuration
Parameter label (name) Default value Description

Oracle Version (OracleVersion)

12.2.0.1

Version of Oracle Database Software.

Domain Name (DomainName)

dataguard-env

Name of Domain to reach your Database Endpoint after setup.

Database Port Number (DatabasePort)

1525

Oracle Database listener port number.

Primary Database Name (DatabaseName)

orcl

Enter your Database Name, Min 3, Maximum of 8 characters (limited by DB_NAME). Primary instance will have the same name of this.

Data Guard Configuration (DataGuardConfig)

Data Guard

Configuration: Single - One instance only, Data Guard - Two instances (Primary + Standby)

Character Set (CharacterSet)

AL32UTF8

Character set for Oracle Database.

Standby Database Name (StandbyName)

orclsb

Enter your Standby instance name, Min 3, Maximum of 12 characters.

Database Password (DatabasePass)

Requires input

Enter your Database Password, Min 3, maximum of 30 characters. This password is used for the SYS, SYSTEM, and DBSNMP users of Oracle Database.

ASM Password (AsmPass)

Requires input

Enter your ASM Password, Min 3, maximum of 30 characters. This password is used for the SYSASM, ASM Monitor, and ASM EM admin users of Oracle ASM.

Data Diskgroup GiB/Disk (EBSData)

20

Enter the number of Gigabytes for Each ASM Disk (EBS) for DATA Diskgroup total of 6 (six) volumes, maximum of 16000 GiB each.

Data Diskgroup Volume Type (DataVolumeType)

gp2

Disk type for EBS Data Diskgroup. gp2 (performance ratio of 3 IOPS: 1 GiB) or io1 (performance ratio up to 50 IOPS : 1 GiB).

Data - IOPS per EBS Volume (DataIOPS)

600

IOPS per EBS Volume, only for io1 types. DATA diskgroup total IOPS will be this value x 6. Maximum of 20000 IOPS per volume. Limited to 50 IOPS : 1 GiB.

Recovery (Reco) Diskgroup GiB/Disk (EBSReco)

6

Enter the number of Gigabytes for Each ASM Disk (EBS) for RECO Diskgroup total of 3 (three) volumes, maximum of 16000 GiB each.

Reco Diskgroup Volume Type (RecoVolumeType)

gp2

Disk type for EBS Reco Diskgroup. gp2 (performance ratio of 3 IOPS: 1 GiB) or io1 (performance ratio up to 50 IOPS : 1 GiB).

Reco - IOPS per EBS Volume (RecoIOPS)

200

IOPS per EBS Volume, only for io1 types. RECO diskgroup total IOPS will be this value x 3. Maximum of 20000 IOPS per volume. Limited to 50 IOPS : 1 GiB.

Binaries Bucket Name (InstallBucketName)

Requires input

Name of your S3 bucket with your Oracle Binaries (e.g., bucket-name)

Binaries Bucket Key Prefix (InstallBucketPrefix)

oracle/database/12

Name of your S3 prefix with your Oracle Binaries (e.g., key/prefix)

Table 9. Oracle Secure Backup Cloud Module (Optional)
Parameter label (name) Default value Description

Install Oracle Secure Backup (OSBInstall)

false

Install (true) or don’t install (false) optional Oracle Secure Backup.

OTN Account Email/Login (OSBOTN)

Requires input

Your OTN (Oracle Technology Network) account login.

OTN Account Password (OSBPass)

Requires input

Password of your OTN (Oracle Technology Network) account.

S3 Bucket for Backups (OSBBucketName)

Requires input

Name of your S3 bucket to store your Oracle backups.

AWS Access Key ID (OSBKey)

Requires input

The AWS Access Key to access your backup bucket, something like AKIAIV3KL4XXIT7DXXYY.

AWS Secret Access Key (OSBSecret)

Requires input

The AWS Secret Key to access your backup bucket, something like c/ZeLyzixxx3HfxPVLX9IOKMXEdSbqks3Acz7QHj.

Table 10. Linux Bastion Configuration
Parameter label (name) Default value Description

Bastion AMI Operating System (BastionAMIOS)

Amazon-Linux2-HVM

The Linux distribution for the AMI to be used for the bastion instances

Bastion Instance Type (BastionInstanceType)

t2.micro

Amazon EC2 instance type for the second bastion instance

Enable Banner (EnableBanner)

false

To include a banner to be displayed when connecting via SSH to the bastion, set this parameter to true

Bastion Banner (BastionBanner)

https://aws-quickstart.s3.amazonaws.com/quickstart-oracle-database/submodules/quickstart-linux-bastion/scripts/banner_message.txt

Banner text to display upon login

Table 11. AWS Quick Start Configuration
Parameter label (name) Default value Description

Quick Start S3 Bucket Name (QSS3BucketName)

aws-quickstart

S3 key prefix for the Quick Start assets. Quick Start key prefix can include numbers, lowercase letters, uppercase letters, hyphens (-), and forward slash (/).

Quick Start S3 bucket region (QSS3BucketRegion)

us-east-1

The AWS Region where the Quick Start S3 bucket (QSS3BucketName) is hosted. When using your own bucket, you must specify this value.

Quick Start S3 Key Prefix (QSS3KeyPrefix)

quickstart-oracle-database/

S3 key prefix for the Quick Start assets. Quick Start key prefix can include numbers, lowercase letters, uppercase letters, hyphens (-), and forward slash (/).

  1. On the Configure stack options page, you can specify tags (key-value pairs) for resources in your stack and set advanced options. When you’re finished, choose Next.

  2. On the Review page, review and confirm the template settings. Under Capabilities, select the two check boxes to acknowledge that the template creates IAM resources and might require the ability to automatically expand macros.

  3. Choose Create stack to deploy the stack.

  4. Monitor the status of the stack. When the status is CREATE_COMPLETE, the Oracle Database deployment is ready.

  5. Use the values displayed in the Outputs tab for the stack, as shown in Figure 6, to view the created resources.

cfn_outputs
Figure 6. Oracle Database outputs after successful deployment

Post deployment steps

Files and Directories

Installation files are downloaded from your S3 bucket to the /u01/install directory. Logs and some temporary configuration files are created in /tmp. Files exchanged between the primary database instance and the standby database instance are placed in an NFS /shared file system. Oracle home directories are in:

  • /u01/app/oracle/product/12c/db_1 for Oracle Database

  • /u01/app/oracle/product/12c/grid for Oracle Grid Infrastructure

Access Your Oracle Database Instance

  1. Access the bastion host (created by the Quick Start template for a new VPC) or launch an EC2 instance in the public subnet, and optionally associate it with the Access Database security group (if you want access to the Oracle listener or Enterprise Manager ports). You can use SSH Agent Forwarding if the same public keys are in use.

  2. From this machine, you can access the instances with SSH (port 22) or the database in the port you defined. You can use the user name “oracle” or “ec2-user” with the PEM key you defined (SSH Agent Forwarding for the private key and orcl.dataguard-env/10.0.0.5 as the example host/address for the Oracle database hosts in the example).

ssh –A oracle@orcl.dataguard-env
access_oracle_db_instance_1
Figure 7. Access Oracle Instance
ssh –A oracle@10.0.0.5
access_oracle_db_instance_2
Figure 8. Access Oracle Instance

If you have an X terminal such as MobaXterm, you can start Java utilities like DBCA and NETCA to manage your EC2 Oracle instance. Database instances are already configured with X11 Linux graphic packages.

access_oracle_db_instance_3
Figure 9. Access Oracle Instance

You can also access port 5500 via a browser by using system or sys users with the password you set, with https://ip:5500/em/login (for example, https://172.31.3.20:5500/em/login).

access_oracle_db_instance_4
Figure 10. Access Oracle Instance

Check Your Environment

To check whether the standby database has been set up and the logs are in sync, log in to the primary database and force a log switch. This creates an archived log that is shipped to the standby database.

# ssh –A oracle@orcl.dataguard-env
# sqlplus / as sysdba
set pages 1000 line 150
alter system switch logfile;
ALTER SESSION SET nls_date_format='DD-MON-YYYY HH24:MI:SS';
SELECT sequence#, first_time, next_time, applied FROM   v$archived
check_environment_1
Figure 11. Check Your Environment

Then log in to the standby machine to see the applied logs generated.

# ssh –A oracle@orcl.dataguard-env
# sqlplus / as sysdba
set pages 1000 line 150
ALTER SESSION SET nls_date_format='DD-MON-YYYY HH24:MI:SS';
SELECT sequence#, first_time, next_time, applied FROM   v$archived_log ORDER BY sequence#;
check_environment_2
Figure 12. Check Your Environment

Best practices for using Oracle Database on AWS

Working with Oracle Data Guard

After completing the deployment, you can change Oracle Data Guard configurations and also perform a switchover.

Viewing Your Configuration

You can use the Oracle command-line interface (DGMGRL) to administer your Data Guard solution. To view your configuration, log into DGMGRL and use the SHOW CONFIGURATION command. See if the protection mode is MaxPerformance, which means that it has asynchronous replication in place. In this example, the primary instance is orcl and the standby instance is orclsb.

view_config_1
Figure 13. Viewing Your Configuration

For a more detailed view, you can show the database replication configurations. In the following example, notice that LogXptMode='async'.

# dgmgrl sys/pass@instance
show database verbose 'databasename';
view_config_2
Figure 14. Viewing Your Configuration

Changing Your Configuration

If you would like to change the protection mode from maximum performance (MaxPerformance) to maximum availability (MaxAvailability) for synchronous replication, you can change it with DGMGRL, and then monitor your performance. This will set up synchronous replication from the primary database (orcl) to the standby database (orclsb) with the lowest recovery point objective (RPO) in the event of primary database failure.

edit database databasename set property 'LogXptMode'='sync';
edit database standbydatabase set property 'LogXptMode'='sync';

EDIT CONFIGURATION SET PROTECTION MODE AS MAXAVAILABILITY;
change_config_1
Figure 15. Changing Your Configuration

For more information about performance modes, see the section HA Scenarios with Oracle Data Guard on AWS previously in this guide.

Switching to the Standby Database

You can use the DGMGRL SWITCHOVER command to switch from the primary database (orcl) to the secondary database (orclsb).

switching_to_standby_db_1
Figure 16. Switching to the Standby Database

If you have not logged in with the SYS password, you may receive the following error.

switching_to_standby_db_2
Figure 17. Switching to the Standby Database

After the primary orcl instance is shut down and started back up, you may see the configuration switchover.

switching_to_standby_db_3
Figure 18. Switching to the Standby Database

If you are logged in with the SYS password, you may fail over without the need for manual shutdown and startup. You can also enable fast-start failover by following the instructions in the Oracle documentation.

Switching Your DNS Configuration

When you switch over to the standby database, you should also update your record set in the Amazon Route 53 private hosted zone to point to the standby database:

  1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console and open the Amazon Route 53 console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/route53/.

  2. Find your IP record inside your private hosted zone and change it to your standby (new primary) IP, so your application can continuously reach your primary database on the private hosted zone, and then save the record.

switch_dns_config_1
Figure 19. Switching Your DNS Configuration

Security

When you deploy systems on the AWS Cloud, security responsibilities are shared between you and AWS. AWS operates, manages, and controls the components from the host operating system and virtualization layer down to the physical security of the facilities in which the services operate. In turn, you assume responsibility and management of the guest operating system (including updates and security patches), other associated application software such as Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure, as well as the configuration of the AWS-provided security group firewall. For more information about security on AWS, visit the AWS Security Center.

Network Security

The default network security setup of this solution follows AWS security best practices. The provisioned Oracle Database instances are deployed in private subnets and can only be accessed in three ways:

  • By connecting to the bastion host instance by using an SSH terminal.

  • From AWS resources (such as EC2, RDS, or other instances) that you might have in the OracleServerAccessSecurityGroup security group, or that you might launch using the security group. You may include your application instance in this security group.

  • By including new rules in OracleServerSecurityGroup to allow access to your database from a known IP block CIDR; for example, you might add an inbound rule to enable the VLAN 10.50.10.0/24 in your data center to connect through a VPN or AWS Direct Connect.

network_security_1
Figure 20. Adding inbound rules to your security group

OS Security

To gain root access to your instances you may use ec2-user or oracle user, and then sudo to root.

You have to keep the Amazon EC2 PEM key you are using secure in your environment. Also, keep in mind that AWS doesn’t store your keys, so if you lose your key, you may not be able to access your instances.

Security Groups

A security group acts as a firewall that controls the traffic for one or more instances. When you launch an instance, you associate one or more security groups with the instance. You add rules to each security group that allow traffic to or from its associated instances. You can modify the rules for a security group at any time. The new rules are automatically applied to all instances that are associated with the security group.

This Quick Start creates three security groups: OracleServerAccessSecurityGroup, OracleServerSecurityGroup, and OracleServersSecurityGroup. After the Quick Start deployment, you are responsible for maintaining these security groups and including or excluding rules.

  • OracleServerSecurityGroup is used to grant the bastion hosts access to port 22 of the Oracle instances.

  • OracleServersSecurityGroup is used only for communications between database instances: primary and standby instances on database ports, SSH, and NFS ports.

  • OracleServerAccessSecurityGroup gives EC2 instances access to your database on the port you set up for database listeners, and on port 5500 for Oracle Enterprise Manager.

Other useful information

Migrating Your Data to AWS

AWS provides several services that you can use to migrate your data to your Oracle Database installation. These are described briefly in the following sections. For detailed information, see the whitepaper Strategies for Migrating Oracle Databases to AWS.

AWS Database Migration Service

AWS Database Migration Service (AWS DMS) helps you migrate your databases to AWS with virtually no downtime. All data changes to the source database that occur during the migration are continuously replicated to the target, allowing the source database to be fully operational during the migration process. After the database migration is complete, the target database remains synchronized with the source for as long as you choose, allowing you to switch the database over at a convenient time.

AWS DMS makes it easy to load your tables from your local database to your database in AWS. You can migrate your Oracle Database with multiple parallel tasks, by using an internet link (VPN connection) or a dedicated 1-Gbps or 10-Gbps connection (AWS Direct Connect).

For more information about AWS DMS, see the AWS website.

AWS Snowball

AWS Snowball, which is a feature of AWS Import/Export, addresses common challenges with large-scale data transfers, including high network costs, long transfer times, and security concerns. Transferring data with Snowball is simple, fast, secure, and can cost as little as one-fifth the cost of high-speed internet.

With Snowball, you don’t need to write any code or purchase any hardware to transfer your data. Create a job in the AWS Management Console, and a Snowball appliance will be automatically shipped to you. Copy your data to the appliance (it will be encrypted), and then ship it back. The data will be loaded to Amazon S3 on AWS and made accessible from your instances.

For more information about AWS Snowball, see the AWS website.

Oracle RMAN Backup and Restore

You can use the Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) to back up your data, send the backup files to AWS through AWS Snowball, or by using VPN or AWS Direct Connect, and restore your database on AWS. For more information about Oracle RMAN, see the Oracle documentation.

Oracle Data Pump

You can use Oracle Data Pump to perform network export/import operations, or send your dump file to the Oracle machines or to Amazon S3 for import operation. For more information about Oracle Data Pump, see the Oracle documentation.

Backing Up Your Data

After you deploy Oracle Database on AWS, you’ll want to perform and schedule your database backups. The following sections describe some of the backup options available to you. If you have a production database, we recommend that you set up a backup strategy and implement it as quickly as possible.

Oracle Secure Backup

If you chose to install the Oracle Secure Backup Cloud Module, the Quick Start performs an initial, complete backup of your database to the S3 bucket you specified in the Quick Start parameters.

Amazon S3 is the perfect place to save your backups, because it is durable, highly available, and cost-effective, and it has a high throughput to your instances.

After deploying the Quick Start, access your machine and view the Amazon S3 log to see the RMAN backup:

osb_1
Figure 21. Oracle Secure Backup

You can use the /tmp/rmanbackup.cmd script to perform new backups or to schedule backup tasks and customize the settings for your needs.

rman cmdfile=/tmp/rmanbackup.cmd log=/tmp/rmanbackup.log
osb_2
Figure 22. Oracle Secure Backup

You can also schedule your backups by using Crontab or another scheduling tool.

Backups to Disk and Amazon S3

You can perform backups to disk, create and attach a new Amazon EBS volume, create a new file system for local backup, and then copy the backup files by using the AWS CLI cp or sync command.

To use cp for individual files:

aws s3 cp /localfilesystem/backuppiece.bkp s3://YOURBUCKET/KEY/DB/

To use cp for a folder:

aws s3 cp /localfilesystem/backupfolder/ s3://YOURBUCKET/KEY/BACKUP/ --recursive

For more information about creating new EBS volumes and file systems, see the AWS documentation.

AMIs and Snapshots

You can use the AWS CLI to generate an Amazon Machine Image (AMI) based on the image of your running instance, and to take snapshots of EBS volumes.

We recommend that you shut down your database instances before creating an AMI or taking EBS snapshots.

After you create an AMI, you can launch it as a new instance. AWS will assign it a new private IP address, unless you specify your own IP address. If you move your instance to another VPC or another AWS Region, AWS might change its IP address. If so, follow these steps to change the IP address after launching the instance:

  1. Edit the following files to reflect the correct IP and host names:

/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/grid/network/admin/listener.ora
/u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/db_1/network/admin/tnsnames.ora
/etc/hosts
  1. Run the following command to update the installation:

sudo su –
cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/grid/crs/install
perl roothas.sh -deconfig -force
cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/grid
./root.sh
cd /u01/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/grid/bin
./srvctl add asm
./srvctl add listener
./srvctl start asm
  1. As an Oracle user with ASM environment variables loaded, connect to asmcmd and mount the DATA and RECO disk groups.

$. oraenv
+ASM
asmcmd
mount data
mount reco
amis_snapshots_1
Figure 23. AMIs and Snapshots

Additional Resources

Oracle Database documentation

Oracle on AWS

Oracle support notes

Access to the following documents requires an Oracle account.

Appendix A

Data Replication Between AWS Regions

For the greatest fault tolerance and stability, you can set up a Data Guard copy of your primary database in another AWS Region. This is a common disaster recovery scenario.

This copy must be replicated asynchronously, considering the latency caused by the distance between Regions. Asynchronous replication avoids performance impact in your primary database, which are probably connected to each to standby database through a VPN connection.

For this scenario, you should also consider replicating your backup objects in an S3 bucket to make them available in more than one Region using cross-Region replication.

appendix_a_1
Figure 24. Data Replication Between AWS Regions

Appendix B

Adding Disks to ASM Disk Groups

After deployment, you might need more space for data files or archived log files. To gain more space, you can add EBS volumes to your DATA and RECO disk groups.

  1. Create a new EBS volume in the Availability Zones in which you deployed your primary and standby instances.

appendix_b_1
Figure 25. Adding Disks to ASM Disk Groups
  1. Attach the new volumes to your instances. Take note of the last letter of the device name (for example, for /dev/sdl, the last letter is l, and will appear in the OS as /dev/xvdl).

appendix_b_2
Figure 26. Adding Disks to ASM Disk Groups
  1. Log in to your instances and create a primary partition for the device:

sudo fdisk /dev/xvdl
n    (new partition)
p    (primary )
<enter>   (default  1 )
<enter>  (default xxx)
w    (write partition)
appendix_b_3
Figure 27. Adding Disks to ASM Disk Groups
  1. Make the partition available to ASM with a name; for example, DATA7. As an Oracle user, add the disk to the corresponding disk group:

sudo /etc/init.d/oracleasm createdisk DATA7 /dev/xvdl1
appendix_b_4
Figure 28. Adding Disks to ASM Disk Groups
sudo su – oracle
. oraenv
+ASM
sqlplus / as sysasm
alter diskgroup data add disk 'ORCL:DATA7';
appendix_b_5
Figure 29. Adding Disks to ASM Disk Groups

FAQ

Q. I encountered a CREATE_FAILED error when I launched the Quick Start.

A. If AWS CloudFormation fails to create the stack, we recommend that you relaunch the template with Rollback on failure set to No. (This setting is under Advanced in the AWS CloudFormation console, Options page.) With this setting, the stack’s state is retained and the instance is left running, so you can troubleshoot the issue. (look at the log files in /var/log/cloud-init.log, /tmp/bootstrap.log, and /tmp/oracleexec.log.)

When you set Rollback on failure to Disabled, you continue to incur AWS charges for this stack. Please make sure to delete the stack when you finish troubleshooting.

For additional information, see Troubleshooting AWS CloudFormation on the AWS website.

Q. I encountered a size limitation error when I deployed the AWS CloudFormation templates.

A. We recommend that you launch the Quick Start templates from the links in this guide or from another S3 bucket. If you deploy the templates from a local copy on your computer or from a location other than an S3 bucket, you might encounter template size limitations. For more information about AWS CloudFormation quotas, see the AWS documentation.

Send us feedback

To post feedback, submit feature ideas, or report bugs, use the Issues section of the GitHub repository for this Quick Start. To submit code, see the Quick Start Contributor’s Guide.

Quick Start reference deployments

GitHub repository

Visit our GitHub repository to download the templates and scripts for this Quick Start, to post your comments, and to share your customizations with others.


Notices

This document is provided for informational purposes only. It represents AWS’s current product offerings and practices as of the date of issue of this document, which are subject to change without notice. Customers are responsible for making their own independent assessment of the information in this document and any use of AWS’s products or services, each of which is provided “as is” without warranty of any kind, whether expressed or implied. This document does not create any warranties, representations, contractual commitments, conditions, or assurances from AWS, its affiliates, suppliers, or licensors. The responsibilities and liabilities of AWS to its customers are controlled by AWS agreements, and this document is not part of, nor does it modify, any agreement between AWS and its customers.

The software included with this paper is licensed under the Apache License, version 2.0 (the "License"). You may not use this file except in compliance with the License. A copy of the License is located at http://aws.amazon.com/apache2.0/ or in the accompanying "license" file. This code is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either expressed or implied. See the License for specific language governing permissions and limitations.